Insulin-induced activation of NADPH-dependent H2O2 generation in human adipocyte plasma membranes is mediated by Galphai2.
Human fat cells possess a multireceptor-linked H2O2-generating system that is activated by insulin. Previous studies revealed that manganese was the sole cofactor required for a hormonal regulation of NADPH-dependent H2O2 generation in vitro. In this report it is shown that the synergistic activation of NADPH-dependent H2O2 generation by Mn2+ and insulin was blocked by GDPbetaS (guanosine 5'-O-(2-thiodiphosphate)), pertussis toxin and COOH-terminal anti-Galphai1-2 or the corresponding peptide. Consistently, manganese could be replaced by micromolar concentrations of GTPgammaS (guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate)), which increased NADPH-dependent H2O2 generation by 20-40%. Insulin shifted the dose response curve for GTPgammaS to the left (>10-fold) and increased the maximal response. In the presence of 10 microM GTPgammaS, the hormone was active at picomolar concentrations, indicating that insulin acted via its cognate receptor. The insulin receptor and Gi were co-adsorbed on anti-Galphai and anti-insulin receptor beta-subunit (anti-IRbeta) affinity columns. Partially purified insulin receptor preparations contained Galphas, Galphai2, and Gbetagamma (but no Galphai1 or Galphai3). The functional nature of the insulin receptor-Gi2 complex was made evident by insulin's ability to modulate labeling of Gi by bacterial toxins. Insulin action was mimicked by activated Galphai, but not by Galphao or Gbetagamma, indicating that insulin's signal was transduced via Galphai2. Thus, NADPH oxidase is the first example of an effector system that is coupled to the insulin receptor via a heterotrimeric G protein.