In-frame exon 2 deletion in insulin receptor RNA in a family with extreme insulin resistance in association with defective insulin binding: a case report.
The phenotype and allelic expression of the insulin receptor gene is presented in a family with a patient with type A insulin resistance. Compared to controls, insulin receptor binding in transformed lymphocytes was 100%. 33% and 13% in the father, mother and proband, respectively. Reduced insulin receptor binding co-segregated with altered insulin receptor mRNA expression; the mother and daughter expressed eight insulin receptor mRNA species, including a set of four normal sized and a set of four shorter mRNA transcripts. In the proband the levels of the normal sized mRNA transcripts were suppressed relative to the shorter transcripts. Reverse polymerase chain reaction (PCR) revealed that the shorter transcripts contained an in-frame deletion of exon 2. Sequencing of the entire insulin receptor coding region revealed a paternally inherited A to T substitution in nucleotide 3205, converting isoleucine 996 to phenylalanine, which does not co-segregate with reduced binding. Therefore, we hypothesize that two findings are necessary for the presentation of type A insulin resistance in this patient: an in-frame deletion of the insulin receptor exon 2 that codes for amino acids crucial for insulin binding: and an inhibition of expression of the paternal insulin receptor allele.