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Modeling of a mutation responsible for human 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA lyase deficiency implicates histidine-233 as an active site residue.

Roberts J., Mitchell G.A., Miziorko H.M.

3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) lyase is inactivated by diethyl pyrocarbonate (DEPC); activity can be fully restored by incubation with hydroxylamine. Protection against DEPC inactivation is afforded by a substrate analogue, suggesting an active site location for a DEPC target. Included in the inherited defects that map within the HMG-CoA lyase gene is a point mutation that results in an arginine substitution for histidine 233, one of only two invariant histidines. These observations prompted a functional test of the importance of His-233. The mutant lyases H233R, H233A, and H233D were overexpressed in Escherichia coli, isolated, and kinetically characterized. In H233D, DEPC targets one less histidine than was measured using wild-type lyase, supporting the assignment of wild-type lyase His-233 as one of the DEPC targets. Substitution of His-233 results in diminution of activity by approximately 4 orders of magnitude. Km values of the mutant lyases for both substrate HMG-CoA and activator divalent cation (Mg2+ or Mn2+) are comparable to the values measured for wild-type enzyme, indicating that these enzymes retain substantial structural integrity. This conclusion is reinforced by the observation that the affinity label, 2-butynoyl-CoA, stoichiometrically modifies the mutant lyases, indicating that they contain a full complement of active sites. In view of these data suggesting that the structures of these mutant lyases closely approximate that of the wild-type enzyme, their observed 10(4)-fold diminution in catalytic efficiency supports assignment to His-233 of a role in the chemistry of HMG-CoA cleavage.

J. Biol. Chem. 271:24604-24609(1996) [PubMed] [Europe PMC]