Gem: an induced, immediate early protein belonging to the Ras family.
A gene encoding a 35-kilodalton guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding protein, Gem, was cloned from mitogen-induced human peripheral blood T cells. Gem and Rad, the product of a gene overexpressed in skeletal muscle in individuals with Type II diabetes, constitute a new family of Ras-related GTP-binding proteins. The distinct structural features of this family include the G3 GTP-binding motif, extensive amino- and carboxyl-terminal extensions beyond the Ras-related domain, and a motif that determines membrane association. Gem was transiently expressed in human peripheral blood T cells in response to mitogenic stimulation; the protein was phosphorylated on tyrosine residues and localized to the cytosolic face of the plasma membrane. Deregulated Gem expression prevented proliferation of normal and transformed 3T3 cells. These results suggest that Gem is a regulatory protein, possibly participating in receptor-mediated signal transduction at the plasma membrane.