Isolation of the human peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma cDNA: expression in hematopoietic cells and chromosomal mapping.
The nuclear receptor superfamily of transcription factors, which includes the retinoic acid receptors and v-erb A, play important roles in the molecular control of hematopoiesis. To identify nuclear receptors expressed in hematopoietic cells, we screened a human bone marrow cDNA library using a degenerate oligonucleotide and isolated a 1.85-kb full-length cDNA encoding a new human member of this superfamily, the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (hPPAR gamma). Two different hPPAR gamma transcripts were expressed in hematopoietic cells: a 1.85-kb transcript, which corresponds to the full-length mRNA (PPAR gamma 1), and a 0.65-kb transcript (PPAR gamma 2), which cannot encode all of the nuclear receptor functional domains. Normal neutrophils and peripheral blood lymphocytes, as well as circulating leukemic cells from patients with AML, ALL, and CML, express only PPAR gamma 2 on Northern blot analysis. In contrast, only the PPAR gamma 1 transcript was detected in a variety of human leukemia cell lines and in cultured normal primary bone marrow stromal cells. Both transcripts were detected in various fetal and adult nonhematopoietic tissues. We mapped the location of the hPPAR gamma gene to human chromosome 3p25 by somatic cell hybridization and linkage analysis. PPARs have been shown to be activated by peroxisome proliferating agents, long-chain fatty acids and arachidonic acid. Human PPAR gamma, although homologous to the PPAR gamma s of other species, has unique sequence and amino acid differences. Identification of hPPAR gamma will allow further understanding of its role in human cellular leukotriene, prostaglandin, and peroxide degradative or synthetic pathways, as well as its role in lipid metabolism and regulation of adipocyte differentiation.