Molecular cloning, functional expression, and signaling characteristics of a C-C chemokine receptor.
The immunoregulatory proteins C-C chemokines are potent chemoattractants of lymphocytes and monocytes, as well as activators and attractants of eosinophils and basophils. We have isolated a cDNA that encodes a seven transmembrane-spanning receptor, with homology to other chemoattractant receptors, that encodes a protein designated C-C CKR-1 that acts as a receptor for the C-C chemokines. Human and murine macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha), human human monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), and RANTES all bind to the C-C CKR-1 with varying affinities. Chemokine binding affinity does not predict how well the ligand will transmit a signal through the receptor: RANTES and human MIP-1 alpha induce a similar intracellular calcium flux while binding with disparate affinities, while MCP-1 and human MIP-1 beta induce calcium mobilization only at high concentrations. Finally, C-C chemokines were shown to bind a C-C CKR-1-related gene product encoded by cytomegalovirus, suggesting a role for C-C chemokines in viral immunity.