Cloning and sequencing of CATR1.3, a human gene associated with tumorigenic conversion.
The human squamous cell carcinoma cell line SCC83-01-82 (SCC) contains mutations in both the H-ras and p53 genes, but it exhibits a nontumorigenic phenotype in nude mice. This cell line can be converted into a cell line with a tumorigenic phenotype, SCC83-01-82CA (CA), by treatment with the mutagen methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). This indicates that additional genetic events leading to expression of a cooperating tumor susceptibility gene(s) may be required for tumorigenicity. To identify the cooperating gene(s), an expression cDNA library was made from tumorigenic Ca cells. The library DNA was transfected into nontumorigenic SCC cells and the transfected SCC cells were then injected into nude mice for the selection of a tumorigenic phenotype. Tumors developed in 3 of the 18 mice after injection. Several new cell lines were established from these transfected cell-induced tumors and designated as CATR cells. Tumor histology and karyotype analysis of these cells indicated that they were of human epithelial cell origin. All the CATR cells have the library vector sequence integrated in their genome. Cell line CATR1 expressed a single message from the integrated library representing a 1.3-kb cDNA insert that was absent from untransfected SCC cells or MMS-converted CA cells. This 1.3-kb cDNA insert was cloned by PCR amplification of reverse-transcribed CATR1 total RNA and was designated CATR1.3. The nucleotide sequence of CATR1.3 encodes a peptide of 79 amino acids, has a long 3' untranslated region, and represents an unknown gene product that was associated with the tumorigenic conversion due to the transfected expression library.