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Molecular genetic analysis of nonclassic steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency associated with HLA-B14,DR1.

Speiser P.W., New M.I., White P.C.

Nonclassic steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency is a frequent, relatively mild disorder of cortisol biosynthesis, characterized by variable signs of postnatal androgen excess. It is inherited as an allelic variant of the gene designated CYP21B, which encodes 21-hydroxylase. CYP21B is located in the HLA histocompatibility complex, and a "nonclassic" allelic variant is often associated with characteristic HLA antigens--B14,DR1. We cloned and analyzed the CYP21B gene from a patient homozygous for HLA-B14,DR1 who had nonclassic 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Five deviations from the normal genetic sequence of CYP21B were found, but only one appeared likely to affect the functional integrity of the protein: codon 281, GTG, encoding valine, was changed to TTG, leucine. We constructed an oligonucleotide probe corresponding to the mutant DNA sequence surrounding codon 281 and hybridized the probe with DNA samples digested with the restriction endonuclease Taql. Samples from eight patients with nonclassic 21-hydroxylase deficiency who had the haplotype HLA-B14,DR1 contained a hybridizing fragment 3700 base pairs long, indicating the presence of the valine-281 mutation in the CYP21B gene. In contrast, unaffected subjects and one patient with nonclassic deficiency who did not have HLA-B14,DR1 had no evidence of this mutation. We conclude that the mutation in codon 281 is a consistent molecular genetic marker for nonclassic 21-hydroxylase deficiency associated with HLA-B14,DR1.

N. Engl. J. Med. 319:19-23(1988) [PubMed] [Europe PMC]