Inactivation of human plasma kallikrein and factor XIa by protein C inhibitor.
The inhibition of kallikrein and factor XIa by protein C inhibitor (PCI) was studied. The method of Suzuki et al. [Suzuki, K., Nishioka, J., & Hashimoto, S. (1983) J. Biol. Chem. 258, 163-168] for the purification of PCI was modified in order to avoid the generation of proteolytic activity and subsequent inactivation of PCI. With the use of soybean trypsin inhibitor, an efficient inhibitor of kallikrein and factor XIa, the generation of proteolytic activity was avoided. The kinetics for the inactivation of activated protein C (APC), kallikrein, and factor XIa by PCI were determined. In the absence of heparin, no inactivation of APC was observed, in contrast to kallikrein and factor XIa, which are inhibited with second-order rate constants of (11 +/- 4) X 10(4) and (0.94 +/-0.07) X 10(4) M-1 s-1, respectively. Addition of heparin potentiated the inhibition of APC [(1.2 +/- 0.2) X 10(4) M-1 s-1] and factor XIa [(9.1 +/-0.7) X 10(4) M-1 s-1] by PCI, whereas the inhibition of kallikrein by PCI was unchanged [(10 +/-1) X 10(4) M-1 s-1]. The second-order rate constants for the inhibition of kallikrein or factor XIa by PCI were similar to the second-order rate constants for the inhibition of their isolated light chains by PCI, indicating a minor role for the heavy chains of both molecules in the inactivation reactions. With sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting, complex formation of APC, kallikrein, and factor XIa with PCI could be demonstrated. APC and kallikrein formed 1:1 molar complexes with PCI.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)