Nucleotide sequence of an actin-encoding gene from Hydra attenuata: structural characteristics and evolutionary implications.
We have determined the complete nucleotide sequence of an actin-encoding gene from Hydra attenuata as well as partial sequences of cDNA clones from two additional actin-encoding genes. The gene from the genomic clone contains a single intron, and has promoter and polyadenylation signals similar to those found in other species. The hydra genome has a very A + T-rich base composition (71%). This is reflected in the codon usage of the actin-encoding genes, which is strongly biased towards codons having A or T in the third position. The hydra actin-encoding gene family consists of three or more transcribed genes, two of which are very closely related to each other and probably arose by a recent gene duplication. Hydra actin, like other invertebrate actins, is more similar to the non-muscle isotypes of vertebrates than to the vertebrate muscle actins. Hydra actin is more similar to animal actins than to those of plants or fungi, which is consistent with the view that all metazoans arose from a single protist ancestor.