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Molecular phenotype of tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase with a proline (108) to leucine substitution associated with dominant odontohypophosphatasia.

Numa-Kinjoh N., Komaru K., Ishida Y., Sohda M., Oda K.

Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is a genetic disease characterized by defective calcification of hard tissues such as bone and teeth accompanying deficiency of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. Its development results from various mutations in the ALPL gene encoding tissue-nonspecific ALP (TNSALP). HPP is known to be transmitted in an autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant manner. A point mutation (c.323C>T) in the ALPL gene leading to a proline to leucine substitution at position 108 of TNSALP was first reported in a patient diagnosed with odonto-HPP (M Herasse et al., J Med Genet 2003;40:605-609), although the effects of this mutation on the TNSALP molecule have not been elucidated. To understand the molecular basis of this dominantly transmitted HPP, we first characterized TNSALP (P108L) by expressing it in COS-1 cells transiently. In contrast to wild-type TNSALP (WT), TNSALP (P108L) showed virtually no ALP activity. When coexpressed with TNSALP (WT), TNSALP (P108L) significantly inhibited the enzyme activity of TNSALP (WT), confirming that this mutant TNSALP exerts a dominant negative effect on TNSALP (WT). Using immunofluorescence and digestion with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C, we demonstrated that TNSALP (P108L) was anchored to the cell surface via glycosylphosphatidylinositol-like TNSALP (WT) in a Tet-On CHO cell expression system. Consistent with this, TNSALP (P108L) acquired endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase H resistance and sialic acids, as evidenced by glycosidase treatments. Importantly, TNSALP (WT) largely formed a functional dimeric structure, while TNSALP (P108L) was found to be present as a monomer in the cell. This indicates that the molecular structure of TNSALP is affected by a missense mutation at position 108, which is in contact with the active site, such that it no longer assembles into the functional dimeric form. Collectively, these results may explain why TNSALP (P108L) loses its ALP activity, even though it is able to gain access to the cell surface.

Mol. Genet. Metab. 115:180-185(2015) [PubMed] [Europe PMC]