Association between a specific apolipoprotein B mutation and familial defective apolipoprotein B-100.
Familial defective apolipoprotein (apo) B-100 is a genetic disease that leads to hypercholesterolemia and to an increased serum concentration of low density lipoproteins that bind defectively to the apoB,E(LDL) receptor. The disorder appears to result from a mutation in the gene for apoB-100. Extensive sequence analysis of the two alleles of one subject heterozygous for the disorder has revealed a previously unreported mutation in the codon for amino acid 3500 that results in the substitution of glutamine for arginine. This same mutant allele occurs in six other, unrelated subjects and in eight affected relatives in two of these families. A partial haplotype of this mutant apoB-100 allele was constructed by sequence analysis and restriction enzyme digestion at positions where variations in the apoB-100 are known to occur. This haplotype is the same in three probands and four affected members of one family and lacks a polymorphic Xba I site whose presence has been correlated with high cholesterol levels. Thus, it appears that the mutation in the codon for amino acid 3500 (CGG----CAG), a CG mutational "hot spot," defines a minor apoB-100 allele associated with defective low density lipoproteins and hypercholesterolemia.