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Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 is a coreceptor for Alzheimer abeta oligomer bound to cellular prion protein.

Um J.W., Kaufman A.C., Kostylev M., Heiss J.K., Stagi M., Takahashi H., Kerrisk M.E., Vortmeyer A., Wisniewski T., Koleske A.J., Gunther E.C., Nygaard H.B., Strittmatter S.M.

Soluble amyloid-β oligomers (Aβo) trigger Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathophysiology and bind with high affinity to cellular prion protein (PrP(C)). At the postsynaptic density (PSD), extracellular Aβo bound to lipid-anchored PrP(C) activates intracellular Fyn kinase to disrupt synapses. Here, we screened transmembrane PSD proteins heterologously for the ability to couple Aβo-PrP(C) with Fyn. Only coexpression of the metabotropic glutamate receptor, mGluR5, allowed PrP(C)-bound Aβo to activate Fyn. PrP(C) and mGluR5 interact physically, and cytoplasmic Fyn forms a complex with mGluR5. Aβo-PrP(C) generates mGluR5-mediated increases of intracellular calcium in Xenopus oocytes and in neurons, and the latter is also driven by human AD brain extracts. In addition, signaling by Aβo-PrP(C)-mGluR5 complexes mediates eEF2 phosphorylation and dendritic spine loss. For mice expressing familial AD transgenes, mGluR5 antagonism reverses deficits in learning, memory, and synapse density. Thus, Aβo-PrP(C) complexes at the neuronal surface activate mGluR5 to disrupt neuronal function.

Neuron 79:887-902(2013) [PubMed] [Europe PMC]