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Control of NOD2 and Rip2-dependent innate immune activation by GEF-H1.

Zhao Y., Alonso C., Ballester I., Song J.H., Chang S.Y., Guleng B., Arihiro S., Murray P.J., Xavier R., Kobayashi K.S., Reinecker H.C.

Genetic variants of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) lead to aberrant microbial recognition and can cause chronic inflammatory diseases in patients with Crohn's disease (CD).We utilized gene-specific siRNA mediated knockdown and expression of guanine nucleotide exchange factor H1 (GEF-H1) in wildtype, Rip2-, and Nod2-deficient macrophages, HCT-116 and HEK 293 cells to determine the role of GEF-H1 in NOD2 and Rip2-mediated NF-κB-dependent induction of proinflammatory cytokine expression. Confocal microscopy was used to determine subcellular distribution of GEF-H1, Rip2, and NOD2.We identified GEF-H1 as an unexpected component of innate immune regulation during microbial pattern recognition by NOD2. Surprisingly, GEF-H1-mediated the activation of Rip2 during signaling by NOD2, but not in the presence of the 3020 insC variant of NOD2 associated with CD. GEF-H1 functioned downstream of NOD2 as part of Rip2-containing signaling complexes and was responsible for phosphorylation of Rip2 by Src tyrosine kinase. Rip2 variants lacking the tyrosine target of GEF-H1-mediated phosphorylation were unable to mediate NF-κB activation in Rip2-deficient macrophages and failed to transduce NOD2 signaling. GEF-H1 is required downstream of NOD2 as part of Rip2-containing signaling complexes for the activation of innate immune responses.GEF-H1 connects tyrosine kinase function to NOD-like receptor signaling and is fundamental to the regulation of microbial recognition by ubiquitous innate immune mechanisms mediated by Rip2 kinase.

Inflamm. Bowel Dis. 18:603-612(2012) [PubMed] [Europe PMC]