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A C-terminal mutation of ATP1A3 underscores the crucial role of sodium affinity in the pathophysiology of rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism.

Blanco-Arias P., Einholm A.P., Mamsa H., Concheiro C., Gutierrez-de-Teran H., Romero J., Toustrup-Jensen M.S., Carracedo A., Jen J.C., Vilsen B., Sobrido M.J.

The Na(+)/K(+)-ATPases are ion pumps of fundamental importance in maintaining the electrochemical gradient essential for neuronal survival and function. Mutations in ATP1A3 encoding the alpha3 isoform cause rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism (RDP). We report a de novo ATP1A3 mutation in a patient with typical RDP, consisting of an in-frame insertion of a tyrosine residue at the very C terminus of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase alpha3-subunit-the first reported RDP mutation in the C terminus of the protein. Expression studies revealed that there is no defect in the biogenesis or plasma membrane targeting, although cells expressing the mutant protein showed decreased survival in response to ouabain challenge. Functional analysis demonstrated a drastic reduction in Na(+) affinity in the mutant, which can be understood by structural modelling of the E1 and E2 conformations of the wild-type and mutant enzymes on the basis of the strategic location of the C terminus in relation to the third Na(+) binding site. The dramatic clinical presentation, together with the biochemical findings, provides both in vivo and in vitro evidence for a crucial role of the C terminus of the alpha-subunit in the function of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and a key impact of Na(+) affinity in the pathophysiology of RDP.

Hum. Mol. Genet. 18:2370-2377(2009) [PubMed] [Europe PMC]