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Platelet-derived growth factor receptor regulates salivary gland morphogenesis via fibroblast growth factor expression.

Yamamoto S., Fukumoto E., Yoshizaki K., Iwamoto T., Yamada A., Tanaka K., Suzuki H., Aizawa S., Arakaki M., Yuasa K., Oka K., Chai Y., Nonaka K., Fukumoto S.

A coordinated reciprocal interaction between epithelium and mesenchyme is involved in salivary gland morphogenesis. The submandibular glands (SMGs) of Wnt1-Cre/R26R mice have been shown positive for mesenchyme, whereas the epithelium is beta-galactosidase-negative, indicating that most mesenchymal cells are derived from cranial neural crest cells. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor alpha is one of the markers of neural crest-derived cells. In this study, we analyzed the roles of PDGFs and their receptors in the morphogenesis of mouse SMGs. PDGF-A was shown to be expressed in SMG epithelium, whereas PDGF-B, PDGFRalpha, and PDGFRbeta were expressed in mesenchyme. Exogenous PDGF-AA and -BB in SMG organ cultures demonstrated increased levels of branching and epithelial proliferation, although their receptors were found to be expressed in mesenchyme. In contrast, short interfering RNA for Pdgfa and -b as well as neutralizing antibodies for PDGF-AB and -BB showed decreased branching. PDGF-AA induced the expression of the fibroblast growth factor genes Fgf3 and -7, and PDGF-BB induced the expression of Fgf1, -3, -7, and -10, whereas short interfering RNA for Pdgfa and Pdgfb inhibited the expression of Fgf3, -7, and -10, indicating that PDGFs regulate Fgf gene expression in SMG mesenchyme. The PDGF receptor inhibitor AG-17 inhibited PDGF-induced branching, whereas exogenous FGF7 and -10 fully recovered. Together, these results indicate that fibroblast growth factors function downstream of PDGF signaling, which regulates Fgf expression in neural crest-derived mesenchymal cells and SMG branching morphogenesis. Thus, PDGF signaling is a possible mechanism involved in the interaction between epithelial and neural crest-derived mesenchyme.

J. Biol. Chem. 283:23139-23149(2008) [PubMed] [Europe PMC]

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