Environmental adaptation: genomic analysis of the piezotolerant and psychrotolerant deep-sea iron reducing bacterium Shewanella piezotolerans WP3.
Shewanella species are widespread in various environments. Here, the genome sequence of Shewanella piezotolerans WP3, a piezotolerant and psychrotolerant iron reducing bacterium from deep-sea sediment was determined with related functional analysis to study its environmental adaptation mechanisms. The genome of WP3 consists of 5,396,476 base pairs (bp) with 4,944 open reading frames (ORFs). It possesses numerous genes or gene clusters which help it to cope with extreme living conditions such as genes for two sets of flagellum systems, structural RNA modification, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) biosynthesis and osmolyte transport and synthesis. And WP3 contains 55 open reading frames encoding putative c-type cytochromes which are substantial to its wide environmental adaptation ability. The mtr-omc gene cluster involved in the insoluble metal reduction in the Shewanella genus was identified and compared. The two sets of flagellum systems were found to be differentially regulated under low temperature and high pressure; the lateral flagellum system was found essential for its motility and living at low temperature.