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A novel sorting nexin modulates endocytic trafficking and alpha-secretase cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein.

Schobel S., Neumann S., Hertweck M., Dislich B., Kuhn P.H., Kremmer E., Seed B., Baumeister R., Haass C., Lichtenthaler S.F.

Ectodomain shedding of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by the two proteases alpha- and beta-secretase is a key regulatory event in the generation of the Alzheimer disease amyloid beta peptide (Abeta). beta-Secretase catalyzes the first step in Abeta generation, whereas alpha-secretase cleaves within the Abeta domain, prevents Abeta generation, and generates a secreted form of APP with neuroprotective properties. At present, little is known about the cellular mechanisms that control APP alpha-secretase cleavage and Abeta generation. To explore the contributory pathways, we carried out an expression cloning screen. We identified a novel member of the sorting nexin (SNX) family of endosomal trafficking proteins, called SNX33, as a new activator of APP alpha-secretase cleavage. SNX33 is a homolog of SNX9 and was found to be a ubiquitously expressed phosphoprotein. Exogenous expression of SNX33 in cultured cells increased APP alpha-secretase cleavage 4-fold but surprisingly had little effect on beta-secretase cleavage. This effect was similar to the expression of the dominant negative dynamin-1 mutant K44A. SNX33 bound the endocytic GTPase dynamin and reduced the rate of APP endocytosis in a dynamin-dependent manner. This led to an increase of APP at the plasma membrane, where alpha-secretase cleavage mostly occurs. In summary, our study identifies SNX33 as a new endocytic protein, which modulates APP endocytosis and APP alpha-secretase cleavage, and demonstrates that the rate of APP endocytosis is a major control factor for APP alpha-secretase cleavage.

J. Biol. Chem. 283:14257-14268(2008) [PubMed] [Europe PMC]