Complete genome sequence of the myxobacterium Sorangium cellulosum.
Schneiker S., Perlova O., Kaiser O., Gerth K., Alici A., Altmeyer M.O., Bartels D., Bekel T., Beyer S., Bode E., Bode H.B., Bolten C.J., Choudhuri J.V., Doss S., Elnakady Y.A., Frank B., Gaigalat L., Goesmann A., Groeger C., Gross F., Jelsbak L., Jelsbak L., Kalinowski J., Kegler C., Knauber T., Konietzny S., Kopp M., Krause L., Krug D., Linke B., Mahmud T., Martinez-Arias R., McHardy A.C., Merai M., Meyer F., Mormann S., Munoz-Dorado J., Perez J., Pradella S., Rachid S., Raddatz G., Rosenau F., Rueckert C., Sasse F., Scharfe M., Schuster S.C., Suen G., Treuner-Lange A., Velicer G.J., Vorholter F.-J., Weissman K.J., Welch R.D., Wenzel S.C., Whitworth D.E., Wilhelm S., Wittmann C., Bloecker H., Puehler A., Mueller R.
The genus Sorangium synthesizes approximately half of the secondary metabolites isolated from myxobacteria, including the anti-cancer metabolite epothilone. We report the complete genome sequence of the model Sorangium strain S. cellulosum So ce56, which produces several natural products and has morphological and physiological properties typical of the genus. The circular genome, comprising 13,033,779 base pairs, is the largest bacterial genome sequenced to date. No global synteny with the genome of Myxococcus xanthus is apparent, revealing an unanticipated level of divergence between these myxobacteria. A large percentage of the genome is devoted to regulation, particularly post-translational phosphorylation, which probably supports the strain's complex, social lifestyle. This regulatory network includes the highest number of eukaryotic protein kinase-like kinases discovered in any organism. Seventeen secondary metabolite loci are encoded in the genome, as well as many enzymes with potential utility in industry.