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Intracerebroventricular administration of an endothelin ETB receptor agonist increases expression of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 and -3 in rat brain.

Koyama Y., Baba A., Matsuda T.

Production of tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs), a family of secreted proteins with inhibitory actions on matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), is up-regulated following nerve injuries and is suggested to have protective effects against MMP-mediated tissue damages. To clarify the extracellular signals involved in TIMP production in the brain, the effects of endothelins (ETs), a family of vasoconstricting peptides, were examined. I.c.v. administration of 500 pmol/day Ala(1,3,11,15)-ET-1, an ET(B) receptor agonist, increased the level of TIMP-1 mRNA in rat hippocampus, caudate-putamen and cerebrum. Ala(1,3,11,15)-ET-1 increased the level of TIMP-3 mRNA in the cerebrum, but not in the hippocampus or caudate-putamen. TIMP-2 mRNA was not affected in these brain regions. Ala(1,3,11,15)-ET-1 also stimulated the production of TIMP-1 and TIMP-3 proteins in the cerebrum. Immunohistochemical observations in the hippocampi of Ala(1,3,11,15)-ET-1-infused rats showed that NeuN-positive neurons and glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive astrocytes were immunoreactive for TIMP-1. In the cerebrum, astrocytes had TIMP-1 and TIMP3 reactivity, but neurons did not. In rat cultured astrocytes, both 100 nM Ala(1,3,11,15)-ET-1 and ET-1 increased the mRNA levels and protein release of TIMP-1 and TIMP-3 mRNAs. The effects of ET-1 on astrocytic TIMP-1 and TIMP-3 mRNAs were inhibited by BQ788, an ET(B) antagonist. These findings indicate that activation of brain ET(B) receptors causes production of TIMP-1 and TIMP-3, and suggest the involvement of astrocytes in ET-induced TIMP production.

Neuroscience 147:620-630(2007) [PubMed] [Europe PMC]