Toward the complete yeast mitochondrial proteome: multidimensional separation techniques for mitochondrial proteomics.
Proteomic analyses of different subcellular compartments, so-called organellar proteomics, facilitate the understanding of cellular functions on a molecular level. In this work, various orthogonal multidimensional separation techniques both on the protein and on the peptide level are compared with regard to the number of identified proteins as well as the classes of proteins accessible by the respective methodology. The most complete overview was achieved by a combination of such orthogonal techniques as shown by the analysis of the yeast mitochondrial proteome. A total of 851 different proteins (PROMITO dataset) were identified by use of multidimensional LC-MS/MS, 1D-SDS-PAGE combined with nano-LC-MS/MS and 2D-PAGE with subsequent MALDI-mass fingerprinting. Our PROMITO approach identified the 749 proteins, which were found in the largest previous study on the yeast mitochondrial proteome, and additionally 102 proteins including 42 open reading frames with unknown function, providing the basis for a more detailed elucidation of mitochondrial processes. Comparison of the different approaches emphasizes a bias of 2D-PAGE against proteins with very high isoelectric points as well as large and hydrophobic proteins, which can be accessed more appropriately by the other methods. While 2D-PAGE has advantages in the possible separation of protein isoforms and quantitative differential profiling, 1D-SDS-PAGE with nano-LC-MS/MS and multidimensional LC-MS/MS are better suited for efficient protein identification as they are less biased against distinct classes of proteins. Thus, comprehensive proteome analyses can only be realized by a combination of such orthogonal approaches, leading to the largest dataset available for the mitochondrial proteome of yeast.