Pathogenomic sequence analysis of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis isolates closely related to Bacillus anthracis.
Han C.S., Xie G., Challacombe J.F., Altherr M.R., Bhotika S.S., Bruce D., Campbell C.S., Campbell M.L., Chen J., Chertkov O., Cleland C., Dimitrijevic M., Doggett N.A., Fawcett J.J., Glavina T., Goodwin L.A., Hill K.K., Hitchcock P., Jackson P.J., Keim P., Kewalramani A.R., Longmire J., Lucas S., Malfatti S., McMurry K., Meincke L.J., Misra M., Moseman B.L., Mundt M., Munk A.C., Okinaka R.T., Parson-Quintana B., Reilly L.P., Richardson P., Robinson D.L., Rubin E., Saunders E., Tapia R., Tesmer J.G., Thayer N., Thompson L.S., Tice H., Ticknor L.O., Wills P.L., Brettin T.S., Gilna P.
Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis are closely related gram-positive, spore-forming bacteria of the B. cereus sensu lato group. While independently derived strains of B. anthracis reveal conspicuous sequence homogeneity, environmental isolates of B. cereus and B. thuringiensis exhibit extensive genetic diversity. Here we report the sequencing and comparative analysis of the genomes of two members of the B. cereus group, B. thuringiensis 97-27 subsp. konkukian serotype H34, isolated from a necrotic human wound, and B. cereus E33L, which was isolated from a swab of a zebra carcass in Namibia. These two strains, when analyzed by amplified fragment length polymorphism within a collection of over 300 of B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, and B. anthracis isolates, appear closely related to B. anthracis. The B. cereus E33L isolate appears to be the nearest relative to B. anthracis identified thus far. Whole-genome sequencing of B. thuringiensis 97-27and B. cereus E33L was undertaken to identify shared and unique genes among these isolates in comparison to the genomes of pathogenic strains B. anthracis Ames and B. cereus G9241 and nonpathogenic strains B. cereus ATCC 10987 and B. cereus ATCC 14579. Comparison of these genomes revealed differences in terms of virulence, metabolic competence, structural components, and regulatory mechanisms.