Cloning, nucleotide sequences, and enzymatic properties of glucose dehydrogenase isozymes from Bacillus megaterium IAM1030.
Bacillus megaterium is known to have several genes that code for isozymes of glucose dehydrogenase. Two of them, gdhI and gdhII, were cloned from B. megaterium IAM1030 in our previous work (T. Mitamura, R. V. Evora, T. Nakai, Y. Makino, S. Negoro, I. Urabe, and H. Okada, J. Ferment. Bioeng. 70:363-369, 1990). In the present study, two new genes, gdhIII and gdhIV, were isolated from the same strain and their nucleotide sequences were identified. Each gene has an open reading frame of 783 bp available to encode a peptide of 261 amino acids. Thus, a total of four glucose dehydrogenase genes have been cloned from B. megaterium IAM1030. In addition, this strain does not seem to have other glucose dehydrogenase genes that can be distinguished from the four cloned genes so far examined by Southern hybridization analysis. The two newly cloned genes were expressed in Escherichia coli cells, and the products, GlcDH-III and GlcDH-IV, were purified and characterized and compared with the other isozymes, GlcDH-I and GlcDH-II, encoded by gdhI and gdhII, respectively. These isozymes showed different mobilities in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (GlcDH-I greater than GlcDH-III = GlcDH-IV greater than GlcDH-II), although they have the same number of amino acid residues. Double-immunodiffusion tests showed that GlcDH-I is immunologically different from the other isozymes and that GlcDH-III and GlcDH-IV are identical to one another but a little different from GlcDH-II. These glucose dehydrogenases were stabilized in the presence of 2 M NaCl. The effect of NaCl was especially large for GlcDH-III, which is most unstable enzyme. Kinetic studies showed that these isozymes are divided into two groups with respect to coenzyme specificity, although they can utilize both NAD and NADP: GlcDH-III and GlcDH-IV prefer NAD, and GlcDH-I and GlcDH-II prefer NADP. The phylogenic relationship of these glucose dehydrogenase genes is also discussed.