Tid1, the human homologue of a Drosophila tumor suppressor, reduces the malignant activity of ErbB-2 in carcinoma cells.
The ErbB-2/HER-2 receptor tyrosine kinase is overexpressed in a wide range of solid human tumors. The ErbB-2 gene product is a transmembrane glycoprotein belonging to the epidermal growth factor receptor family, and its cytoplasmic domain is responsible for sending the mitogenic signals into cells. We discovered that this domain of ErbB-2 interacts with Tid1 protein, the human counterpart of the Drosophila tumor suppressor Tid56, whose null mutation causes lethal tumorigenesis during the larval stage. Tid1 also is known as a cochaperone of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and binds to HSP70 through its conserved DnaJ domain. We found that increased expression of Tid1 in human mammary carcinomas overexpressing ErbB-2 suppresses the expression level of ErbB-2 and attenuates the resultant ErbB-2-dependent oncogenic extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and big mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 signaling pathways leading to programmed cell death (PCD). A functional DnaJ domain of Tid1 also is required for its inhibition of ErbB-2 expression and the consequent PCD of carcinoma cells resulting from increased Tid1 expression. Importantly, ErbB-2-dependent tumor progression in animals is inhibited by increased expression of Tid1 in tumor cells. Collectively, these results suggest that Tid1 modulates the uncontrolled proliferation of ErbB-2-overexpressing carcinoma cells by reducing ErbB-2 expression and as a result suppresses the ErbB-2-dependent cancerous signaling and tumor progression. Moreover, the cochaperonic and regulatory functions of Tid1 on HSP70 most likely play an essential role in this antitumor function of Tid1 in carcinoma cells.