Integrin alpha v beta 6 is an RGD-dependent receptor for coxsackievirus A9.
Coxsackievirus A9 (CAV9), a member of the Enterovirus genus of Picornaviridae, is a common human pathogen and is one of a significant number of viruses containing a functional arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) motif in one of their capsid proteins. Previous studies identified the RGD-recognizing integrin alpha(v)beta(3) as its cellular receptor. However, integrin alpha(v)beta(6) has been shown to be an efficient receptor for another RGD-containing picornavirus, foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). In view of the similarity in sequence context of the RGD motifs in CAV9 and FMDV, we investigated whether alpha(v)beta(6) can also serve as a receptor for CAV9. We found that CAV9 can bind to purified alpha(v)beta(6) and also to SW480 cells transfected with beta(6) cDNA, allowing expression of alpha(v)beta(6) on their surface, but it cannot bind to mock-transfected cells. In addition, a higher yield of CAV9 was obtained in beta(6)-expressing cells than in mock-transfected cells. There was no similar enhancement in infection with an RGD-less CAV9 mutant. We also found beta(6) on the surface of GMK cells, a cell line which CAV9 infects efficiently by an RGD-dependent mechanism. Significantly, this infection is blocked by an antibody to alpha(v)beta(6), while this antibody did not block the low level of infection by the RGD-less mutant. Thus, integrin alpha(v)beta(6) is an RGD-dependent receptor for CAV9 and may be important in natural CAV9 infections.