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Chemotaxis inhibitory protein of Staphylococcus aureus binds specifically to the C5a and formylated peptide receptor.

Postma B., Poppelier M.J.J.G., van Galen J.C., Prossnitz E.R., van Strijp J.A.G., de Haas C.J.C., van Kessel K.P.M.

Chemotaxis inhibitory protein of Staphylococcus aureus (CHIPS) is an exoprotein produced by several strains of S. aureus, and a potent inhibitor of neutrophil and monocyte chemotaxis toward C5a and formylated peptides like fMLP. These chemoattractants act on their target cells by binding and activating the C5aR and formylated peptide receptor (FPR), respectively. In the present report, we examined the mechanism by which CHIPS affects both of these receptors. We showed that CHIPS blocked binding of anti-C5aR mAb and formylated peptide to human neutrophils as efficiently at temperatures of 0 and 37 degrees C, implying that it is independent of signal transducing systems. This was confirmed by showing that CHIPS acts completely independently of ATP. Additionally, CHIPS was not internalized upon binding to neutrophils. Furthermore, we showed that CHIPS binds specifically to the C5aR and FPR expressed on U937 cells. This binding was functional in blocking C5a- and fMLP-induced calcium mobilization in these cell lines. These results suggest that CHIPS binds directly to the C5aR and FPR, thereby preventing the natural ligands from activating these receptors. The apparent K(d) values of CHIPS for the C5aR and FPR were 1.1 +/- 0.2 nM and 35.4 +/-7.7 nM, respectively. Moreover, after screening a wide variety of other G protein-coupled receptors, CHIPS was found to affect exclusively the C5aR and FPR. This selectivity and high-affinity binding with potent antagonistic effects makes CHIPS a promising lead for the development of new anti-inflammatory compounds for diseases in which damage by neutrophils plays a key role.

J. Immunol. 172:6994-7001(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC]