A role for GEA1 and GEA2 in the organization of the actin cytoskeleton in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Profilin is an actin monomer-binding protein implicated in the polymerization of actin filaments. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the pfy1-111 rho2delta double mutant has severe growth and actin cytoskeletal defects. The GEA1 and GEA2 genes, which code for paralog guanosine exchange factors for Arf proteins, were identified as multicopy suppressors of the mutant phenotype. These two genes restored the polarized distribution of actin cortical patches and produced visible actin cables in both the pfy1-111 rho2delta and pfy1delta cells. Thus, overexpression of GEA1 or GEA2 bypassed the requirement for profilin in actin cable formation. In addition, gea1 gea2 double mutants showed defects in budding and in actin cytoskeleton organization, while overexpression of GEA1 or GEA2 led to the formation of supernumerary actin cable-like structures in a Bni1p/Bnr1p-dependent manner. The ADP-ribosylation factor Arf3p may be a target of Gea1p/Gea2p, since overexpression of ARF3 partially suppressed the profilin-deficient phenotype and a deletion of ARF3 exacerbated the phenotype of a pfy1-111 mutant. Gea1p, Gea2p, Arf1p, and Arf2p but not Arf3p are known to function in vesicular transport between the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi. In this work, we demonstrate a role for Gea1p, Gea2p, and Arf3p in the organization of the actin cytoskeleton.