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NF-kappaB protects from the lysosomal pathway of cell death.

Liu N., Raja S.M., Zazzeroni F., Metkar S.S., Shah R., Zhang M., Wang Y., Broemme D., Russin W.A., Lee J.C., Peter M.E., Froelich C.J., Franzoso G., Ashton-Rickardt P.G.

The programme of gene expression induced by RelA/NF-kappaB transcription factors is critical to the control of cell survival. Ligation of 'death receptors' such as tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNF-R1) triggers apoptosis, as well as NF-kappaB, which counteracts this process by activating the transcription of anti-apoptotic genes. In addition to activating caspases, TNF-R1 stimulation causes the release of cathepsins, most notably cathepsin B, from the lysosome into the cytoplasm where they induce apoptosis. Here we report a mechanism by which NF-kappaB protects cells against TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis: inhibition of the lysosomal pathway of apoptosis. NF-kappaB can protect cells from death after TNF-R1 stimulation, by extinguishing cathepsin B activity in the cytosol. This activity of NF-kappaB is mediated, at least in part, by the upregulation of Serine protease inhibitor 2A (Spi2A), a potent inhibitor of cathepsin B. Indeed, Spi2A can substitute for NF-kappaB in suppressing the induction of cathepsin B activity in the cytosol. Thus, inhibition of cathepsin B by Spi2A is a mechanism by which NF-kappaB protects cells from lysosome-mediated apoptosis.

EMBO J. 22:5313-5322(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC]

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