Analysis of the order of autophosphorylation of human insulin receptor tyrosines 1158, 1162 and 1163.
Insulin receptor tyrosines 1158, 1162 and 1163 are the most rapidly autophosphorylated residues following insulin binding. Although progression of these tyrosines from a bis-to tris-phosphorylated state leads to activation of the receptor tyrosine kinase towards added substrates, rather paradoxically, a receptor with a Y1158F mutation has been reported to be capable of normal activation. In the present study we demonstrate that autophosphorylation of the insulin receptor probably initiates on either of tyrosines 1158 and 1162 while autophosphorylation of tyrosine 1163 occurs predominantly late in the autophosphorylation cascade. Our results are compatible with tyrosines 1162 and 1163 being the major determinants of kinase activity and explain why wild-type insulin receptors only become active after all three of tyrosines 1158, 1162 and 1163 have been phosphorylated.