A proteomics approach to understanding protein ubiquitination.
There is a growing need for techniques that can identify and characterize protein modifications on a large or global scale. We report here a proteomics approach to enrich, recover, and identify ubiquitin conjugates from Saccharomyces cerevisiae lysate. Ubiquitin conjugates from a strain expressing 6xHis-tagged ubiquitin were isolated, proteolyzed with trypsin and analyzed by multidimensional liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/LC-MS/MS) for amino acid sequence determination. We identified 1,075 proteins from the sample. In addition, we detected 110 precise ubiquitination sites present in 72 ubiquitin-protein conjugates. Finally, ubiquitin itself was found to be modified at seven lysine residues providing evidence for unexpected diversity in polyubiquitin chain topology in vivo. The methodology described here provides a general tool for the large-scale analysis and characterization of protein ubiquitination.