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Interaction between growth arrest-DNA damage protein 34 and Src kinase Lyn negatively regulates genotoxic apoptosis.

Grishin A.V., Azhipa O., Semenov I., Corey S.J.

Genotoxic stresses activate intracellular signaling molecules, which lead to growth arrest, DNA repair, and/or apoptosis. Among these molecules are the growth arrest and DNA damage protein 34 (GADD34) and the Src-related protein tyrosine kinase Lyn. Here, we report that these two proteins physically and functionally interact to regulate DNA damage-induced apoptosis. Multiple isolates of GADD34 and the related murine protein MyD116 were identified as binding partners of Lyn in a yeast two-hybrid screen. The specific interaction was confirmed by in vitro association of GADD34 with glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins containing the Src Homology 3 (SH3) domain of Lyn, as well as coimmunoprecipitation of GADD34 and Lyn from mammalian cells. GADD34 was tyrosine-phosphorylated in vivo in a Lyn-dependent manner. Lyn efficiently phosphorylated affinity-purified GADD34 in vitro. Lyn negatively regulated the proapoptotic function of GADD34 in a kinase-dependent manner. Expression of wild-type, but not kinase-inactive, Lyn weakened promotion of apoptosis by GADD34 following treatment with methyl-methanesulfonate or ionizing radiation in HEK293 and HeLa cells. In contrast, pretreatment of cells with the Src-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor PP1 strengthened promotion of apoptosis by GADD34. We propose that Lyn regulates the proapoptotic function of GADD34 by binding and phosphorylating it.

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98:10172-10177(2001) [PubMed] [Europe PMC]