Association between total serum calcium and the A986S polymorphism of the calcium-sensing receptor gene.
Serum calcium is under tight physiological control, but it is also a quantitative trait with substantial genetic regulation. Mutations of the CASR gene cause familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia or autosomal dominant hypoparathyroidism, depending on whether they decrease or increase, respectively, ligand binding to the receptor protein. We described an association between ionized calcium and a common polymorphism (A986S) found in the cytoplasmic tail of this G protein-coupled receptor. We report here on an independent study of 387 healthy young women. Genotyping was performed by allele-specific amplification and serum chemistries were measured by automated clinical assay. Frequencies of SS, AS, and AA genotypes were 6, 107, and 274, respectively, yielding a 986S allele frequency of 15.4%. Mean total serum calcium (Ca(T)) was significantly higher in the SS (9.88 +/- 0.29 mg/dL, P = 0.015) and AS groups (9.45 +/-0.05 mg/dL, P = 0.002), than in the AA group (9.23 +/-0.04 mg/dL). In multiple regression modeling, the A986S genotype remained an independently significant predictor of Ca(T) (P < 0.0001) when serum albumin, globulin, inorganic phosphate, and creatinine covariates were included. These data are the first to show significant association between a common polymorphism and concentrations of a serum electrolyte. The A986S polymorphism is also a potential predisposing factor in disorders of bone and mineral metabolism.