PEBP2alphaA/CBFA1 mutations in Japanese cleidocranial dysplasia patients.
Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) is an autosomal dominant human bone disease whose genetic locus has been located on chromosome 6p21, where the PEBP2alphaA/CBFA1 gene essential for osteogenesis also maps. Previously, several heterozygous mutations in PEBP2alphaA/CBFA1 were found in CCD patients. In this study, we identified six different types of mutations in PEBP2alphaA/CBFA1 in Japanese CCD patients. Four cases were similar to those reported previously: two were nonsense mutations in the Runt domain, one was a hemizygous deletion, and the other was a missense mutation in the Runt domain which abolished the DNA-binding activity of Runx2/PEBP2alphaA/CBFA1. The remaining two mutations were novel: one had a heterozygous gt-to-tt mutation at the splice donor site (gt) between the exon3-intron junction, which resulted in abnormal exon3 skipping, and the other had a mutation in exon7, which led to the introduction of a translational stop codon in the middle of the transactivation domain. Thus, defects in either the DNA-binding domain or transactivation domain of Runx2/PEBP2alphaA/CBFA1 can cause CCD. The results not only provide a strong genetic evidence that mutations involving in PEBP2alphaA/CBFA1 contribute to CCD, but also provide a useful tool to study how Runx2/PEBP2alphaA/CBFA1 plays its pivotal role during osteoblastic differentiation.