Identification of viral macrophage inflammatory protein (vMIP)-II as a ligand for GPR5/XCR1.
Lymphotactin is unique among chemokines in that it contains only two of four conserved cysteines and may possess a structure less constrained than other chemokines. The viral chemokine vMIP-II, which presumably has a structure similar to that of CC chemokines has been shown to inhibit many chemokine receptors, but its activity at GPR5/XCR1 has not been described. Interestingly, vMIP-II (but not vMIP-I) was found to be a potent antagonist of lymphotactin activity at GPR5/XCR1, extending the range of chemokine classes that this viral protein is known to inhibit to include the C class chemokine. In addition, we have extended previous analyses of GPR5/XCR1 expression and show that this receptor is expressed in leukocyte cells previously shown to be responsive to lymphotactin.