Inhibition of tyrosine kinase activation blocks the down-regulation of CXC chemokine receptor 4 by HIV-1 gp120 in CD4+ T cells.
Because the binding of HIV-1 envelope to CD4 initiates a configurational change in glycoprotein 120 (gp120), enabling it to interact with fusion coreceptors, we investigated how this process interferes with the expression and function of CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) in CD4+ T lymphocytes. A recombinant gp120 (MN), after preincubation with CD4+ T lymphocytes, significantly inhibited the binding and chemotaxis of the cells in response to the CXCR4 ligand stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha (SDF-1alpha), accompanied by a markedly reduced surface expression of CXCR4. gp120, but not SDF-1alpha, induced rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of src-like kinase p56lck in CD4+ T cells, whereas both gp120 and SDF-1alpha caused phosphorylation of the CXCR4. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor herbimycin A abolished the phosphorylation of p56lck and CXCR4 induced by gp120 in association with maintenance of normal expression of cell surface CXCR4 and a migratory response to SDF-1alpha. Thus, a CD4-associated signaling molecule(s) including p56lck is activated by gp120 and is required for the down-regulation of CXCR4.