Limb and skin abnormalities in mice lacking IKKalpha.
The gene encoding inhibitor of kappa B (IkappaB) kinase alpha (IKKalpha; also called IKK1) was disrupted by gene targeting. IKKalpha-deficient mice died perinatally. In IKKalpha-deficient fetuses, limb outgrowth was severely impaired despite unaffected skeletal development. The epidermal cells in IKKalpha-deficient fetuses were highly proliferative with dysregulated epidermal differentiation. In the basal layer, degradation of IkappaB and nuclear localization of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) were not observed. Thus, IKKalpha is essential for NF-kappaB activation in the limb and skin during embryogenesis. In contrast, there was no impairment of NF-kappaB activation induced by either interleukin-1 or tumor necrosis factor-alpha in IKKalpha-deficient embryonic fibroblasts and thymocytes, indicating that IKKalpha is not essential for cytokine-induced activation of NF-kappaB.