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Animal toxin annotation project

Statistics

UniProt release 2017_06 of Jun-07, 2017 contains 554,860 reviewed entries.

Total number of reviewed animal toxin entries: 5,806 .

Total number of reviewed venom protein entries: 6,251 .

Common name Scientific name Toxins Proteins
found in
venom
Species
producing
toxins
Species
secreting
venom
Snakes Serpentes 1,934 2,277 205 208
Spiders Araneae 1,388 1,463 99 100
Snails Gastropoda 1,172 1,179 108 106
Scorpions Scorpiones 763 954 72 77
Sea anemones Actiniaria 234 0 43 0
Insects Hexapoda 75 258 38 79
Lizards Anguimorpha 34 37 7 7
Fishes Teleostei 29 15 10 5
Scolopendra Scolopendridae 49 52 3 4
Mammals Mammalia 7 6 2 1
Hydra Hydroida 4 0 2 0
Toad Amphibia 76 3 16 2
Mites Acari 3 0 2 0
Starfishes Asteroidea 3 3 1 1
Worms Cerebratulus 3 0 1 0
Medusae Rhopilema 1 0 1 0
Jellyfishes Cubozoa 5 0 4 0
other metazoans - 26 4 12 2
All animals Metazoa 5,806 6,251 626 592

Venom protein targets in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot distributed by taxonomical group. The idea for the table originates from the nomenclature proposition made by King et al. 2008 (PMID:18619481). The table proposed in this paper has been completed and links between venom proteins and targets have been added. Since this table may also help in nomenclature discussions, the descriptors (Greek letter that specifies the biological function) proposed by these authors are also indicated (see 2nd column). Note that multiple descriptors used for sodium channels are due to different modes of action on this channel. The targets are firstly ordered by types: ion channels, receptors (7TM and 1TM) and transporters, and secondly by abundance.

target: ion channel (voltage-gated and transmitter-gated) descriptor snake scorpion spider cone snail insect sea anemone all
voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channel beta, delta, iota, mu 1 360 150 94 3 87 699
potassium channel inhibitor (Includes the following 4 channels: KIR, K2P, Kv and KCa as targets) - 51 290 102 40 6 68 584
- voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channel kappa 45 184 90 22 0 64 418
- calcium-activated potassium (KCa) channel lambda 11 47 7 0 3 0 68
- inward-rectifier potassium (KIR) channel eta 0 0 0 0 1 0 1
- two-pore domain potassium (K2P) channel theta 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha, psi 277 0 0 152 0 0 429
calcium channel inhibitor (Includes CaV and Ryr) - 55 25 119 83 7 0 305
- voltage-gated calcium (Cav) channel omega 11 3 112 77 6 0 213
- ryanodine receptor (RyR) phi 8 19 0 0 0 0 28
- P2RX receptor omicron 0 0 2 0 0 0 2
chloride channel inhibitor (Includes CLCN, CFTR and GABA(A) as targets) - 2 18 0 0 0 0 20
- voltage-gated chloride channels (CLCN) epsilon 0 18 0 0 0 0 18
- CFTR channel LAMBDA - in upper case 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
- GABA(A) receptor SIGMA - in upper case 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
glutamate receptor GAMMA - in upper case 0 0 2 19 0 0 21
HCNa nonspecific cation channel gamma 0 0 0 7 0 0 7
cyclic nucleotide-gated channel zeta 10 0 0 0 0 0 10
transient receptor potential (TRP) channel tau 0 0 4 0 0 3 16
acid-sensing ion (ASICs) channel pi 2 0 1 0 0 2 5
5-HT receptor sigma 0 0 0 1 0 0 1
target: receptor 7TM descriptor snake scorpion spider cone snail insect sea anemone all
muscarinic acetylcholine receptor - 27 0 0 0 0 0 27
adrenoceptor rho 13 12 0 1 0 0 27
bradykinin receptor - 6 2 5 0 10 0 92
dopamine receptor - 1 0 0 0 0 0 1
vasopressin/oxytocin receptor upsilon 0 0 0 4 0 0 4
endothelin receptor xi 6 0 0 0 0 0 6
vasoactive intestinal polypeptide receptor - 0 0 0 0 0 0 4
glucagon-like peptide receptor - 0 0 0 0 0 0 3
somatostatin receptor - 0 0 0 2 0 0 2
cholecystokinin receptor - 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
neurotensin receptor nu 0 0 0 3 0 0 3
target: receptor 1TM descriptor snake scorpion spider cone snail insect sea anemone all
vascular endothelial growth factor receptor - 16 0 0 0 0 0 16
epidermal growth factor receptor OMEGA - in upper case 0 0 0 0 0 4 4
target: transporter descriptor snake scorpion spider cone snail insect sea anemone all
noradrenaline transporter chi 0 0 0 8 0 0 8
glutamate transporter - 0 0 1 0 0 0 1

Snake venom proteins - 2,277 reviewed entries.

Evidence for the existence of protein Percentage of entries
at protein level 67.9%
at transcript level 24.2%
inferred from homology 7.9%
predicted N/A
uncertain N/A

Annotation categories Entries with Number of annotations Coverage
PubMed citations 2,277 1,866 unique 100%
General annotation 2,277 11,086 100%
Function 2,188 2,332 96.1%
Catalytic activity 537 539 23.6%
Subcellular location 0 0 N/A
Toxic dose 278 305 12.2%
Sequence annotation 2,272 25,231 99.8%
Amino acid modifications 2,068 11,570 90.8%
Cross-references 2,277 30,191 100%
EMBL 1,364 1,700 59.9%
InterPro 1,950 6,550 85.6%
PDB 246 555 10.8%

100% of reviewed snake venom proteins entries are annotated with at least one keyword .

99.9% of reviewed snake venom proteins entries are annotated with at least one GO (Gene Ontology ) term.

Snail venom proteins - 1,179 reviewed entries.

Evidence for the existence of protein Percentage of entries
at protein level 35.7%
at transcript level 54.7%
inferred from homology 9.4%
predicted N/A
uncertain 0.2%

Annotation categories Entries with Number of annotations Coverage
PubMed citations 1,179 461 unique 100%
General annotation 1,179 5,146 100%
Function 575 580 48.8%
Catalytic activity 3 3 0.3%
Subcellular location 0 0 N/A
Toxic dose 5 5 0.4%
Sequence annotation 1,164 7,695 98.7%
Amino acid modifications 1,065 3,934 90.3%
Cross-references 1,179 6,447 100%
EMBL 734 976 62.3%
InterPro 771 1,016 65.4%
PDB 78 165 6.6%
Conoserver 863 946 73.2%

100% of reviewed snail venom proteins entries are annotated with at least one keyword .

100% of reviewed snail venom proteins entries are annotated with at least one GO (Gene Ontology ) term.

Scorpion venom proteins - 954 reviewed entries.

Evidence for the existence of protein Percentage of entries
at protein level 59.3%
at transcript level 27.5%
inferred from homology 13.2%
predicted N/A
uncertain N/A

Annotation categories Entries with Number of annotations Coverage
PubMed citations 954 663 unique 100%
General annotation 954 3,700 100%
Function 843 879 88.4%
Catalytic activity 15 15 1.6%
Subcellular location 0 0 N/A
Toxic dose 87 92 9.1%
Sequence annotation 949 5,358 99.5%
Amino acid modifications 782 2,826 82%
Cross-references 953 7,731 100%
EMBL 509 656 53.4%
InterPro 712 1,604 74.6%
PDB 93 163 9.7%

100% of reviewed scorpion venom proteins entries are annotated with at least one keyword .

99.9% of reviewed scorpion venom proteins entries are annotated with at least one GO (Gene Ontology ) term.

Spider venom proteins - 1,463 reviewed entries.

Evidence for the existence of protein Percentage of entries
at protein level 44%
at transcript level 50.6%
inferred from homology 5.4%
predicted N/A
uncertain N/A

Annotation categories Entries with Number of annotations Coverage
PubMed citations 1,463 379 unique 100%
General annotation 1,463 6,415 100%
Function 1,160 1,165 79.3%
Catalytic activity 217 217 14.8%
Subcellular location 0 0 N/A
Toxic dose 107 123 7.3%
Sequence annotation 1,453 9,613 99.3%
Amino acid modifications 1,260 4,130 86.1%
Cross-references 1,459 9,542 100%
EMBL 1,038 1,358 71%
InterPro 1,083 1,427 74%
PDB 68 99 4.6%
ArachnoServer 1,138 1,147 77.8%

100% of reviewed spider venom proteins entries are annotated with at least one keyword .

99.5% of reviewed spider venom proteins entries are annotated with at least one GO (Gene Ontology ) term.