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Animal toxin annotation project

Statistics

UniProt release 2017_04 of Apr-12, 2017 contains 554,241 reviewed entries.

Total number of reviewed animal toxin entries: 5,779 .

Total number of reviewed venom protein entries: 6,223 .

Common name Scientific name Toxins Proteins
found in
venom
Species
producing
toxins
Species
secreting
venom
Snakes Serpentes 1,932 2,275 203 206
Spiders Araneae 1,379 1,454 99 100
Snails Gastropoda 1,161 1,168 105 103
Scorpions Scorpiones 760 951 71 77
Sea anemones Actiniaria 234 0 43 0
Insects Hexapoda 75 258 38 79
Lizards Anguimorpha 34 37 7 7
Fishes Teleostei 27 12 9 4
Scolopendra Scolopendridae 49 52 3 4
Mammals Mammalia 7 6 2 1
Hydra Hydroida 4 0 2 0
Toad Amphibia 76 3 16 2
Mites Acari 3 0 2 0
Starfishes Asteroidea 3 3 1 1
Worms Cerebratulus 3 0 1 0
Medusae Rhopilema 1 0 1 0
Jellyfishes Cubozoa 5 0 4 0
other metazoans - 26 4 12 2
All animals Metazoa 5,779 6,223 619 586

Venom protein targets in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot distributed by taxonomical group. The idea for the table originates from the nomenclature proposition made by King et al. 2008 (PMID:18619481). The table proposed in this paper has been completed and links between venom proteins and targets have been added. Since this table may also help in nomenclature discussions, the descriptors (Greek letter that specifies the biological function) proposed by these authors are also indicated (see 2nd column). Note that multiple descriptors used for sodium channels are due to different modes of action on this channel. The targets are firstly ordered by types: ion channels, receptors (7TM and 1TM) and transporters, and secondly by abundance.

target: ion channel (voltage-gated and transmitter-gated) descriptor snake scorpion spider cone snail insect sea anemone all
voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channel beta, delta, iota, mu 1 358 150 90 3 87 693
potassium channel inhibitor (Includes the following 4 channels: KIR, K2P, Kv and KCa as targets) - 51 289 102 40 6 68 583
- voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channel kappa 45 184 90 22 0 64 418
- calcium-activated potassium (KCa) channel lambda 11 47 7 0 3 0 68
- inward-rectifier potassium (KIR) channel eta 0 0 0 0 1 0 1
- two-pore domain potassium (K2P) channel theta 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha, psi 277 0 0 150 0 0 427
calcium channel inhibitor (Includes CaV and Ryr) - 55 25 119 77 7 0 299
- voltage-gated calcium (Cav) channel omega 11 3 112 70 6 0 206
- ryanodine receptor (RyR) phi 8 19 0 0 0 0 28
- P2RX receptor omicron 0 0 2 0 0 0 2
chloride channel inhibitor (Includes CLCN, CFTR and GABA(A) as targets) - 2 18 0 0 0 0 20
- voltage-gated chloride channels (CLCN) epsilon 0 18 0 0 0 0 18
- CFTR channel LAMBDA - in upper case 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
- GABA(A) receptor SIGMA - in upper case 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
glutamate receptor GAMMA - in upper case 0 0 2 19 0 0 21
HCNa nonspecific cation channel gamma 0 0 0 7 0 0 7
cyclic nucleotide-gated channel zeta 10 0 0 0 0 0 10
transient receptor potential (TRP) channel tau 0 0 4 0 0 3 16
acid-sensing ion (ASICs) channel pi 4 0 1 0 0 2 7
5-HT receptor sigma 0 0 0 1 0 0 1
target: receptor 7TM descriptor snake scorpion spider cone snail insect sea anemone all
muscarinic acetylcholine receptor - 27 0 0 0 0 0 27
adrenoceptor rho 13 12 0 1 0 0 27
bradykinin receptor - 6 2 5 0 10 0 92
dopamine receptor - 1 0 0 0 0 0 1
vasopressin/oxytocin receptor upsilon 0 0 0 4 0 0 4
endothelin receptor xi 6 0 0 0 0 0 6
vasoactive intestinal polypeptide receptor - 0 0 0 0 0 0 4
glucagon-like peptide receptor - 0 0 0 0 0 0 3
somatostatin receptor - 0 0 0 2 0 0 2
cholecystokinin receptor - 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
neurotensin receptor nu 0 0 0 3 0 0 3
target: receptor 1TM descriptor snake scorpion spider cone snail insect sea anemone all
vascular endothelial growth factor receptor - 16 0 0 0 0 0 16
epidermal growth factor receptor OMEGA - in upper case 0 0 0 0 0 4 4
target: transporter descriptor snake scorpion spider cone snail insect sea anemone all
noradrenaline transporter chi 0 0 0 8 0 0 8
glutamate transporter - 0 0 1 0 0 0 1

Snake venom proteins - 2,275 reviewed entries.

Evidence for the existence of protein Percentage of entries
at protein level 67.9%
at transcript level 24.3%
inferred from homology 7.9%
predicted N/A
uncertain N/A

Annotation categories Entries with Number of annotations Coverage
PubMed citations 2,275 1,857 unique 100%
General annotation 2,275 11,077 100%
Function 2,186 2,330 96.1%
Catalytic activity 546 548 24%
Subcellular location 0 0 N/A
Toxic dose 278 305 12.2%
Sequence annotation 2,270 25,104 99.8%
Amino acid modifications 2,066 11,558 90.8%
Cross-references 2,275 29,868 100%
EMBL 1,364 1,700 60%
InterPro 1,950 6,587 85.7%
PDB 246 555 10.8%

100% of reviewed snake venom proteins entries are annotated with at least one keyword .

100% of reviewed snake venom proteins entries are annotated with at least one GO (Gene Ontology ) term.

Snail venom proteins - 1,168 reviewed entries.

Evidence for the existence of protein Percentage of entries
at protein level 34.6%
at transcript level 55.7%
inferred from homology 9.5%
predicted N/A
uncertain 0.2%

Annotation categories Entries with Number of annotations Coverage
PubMed citations 1,168 445 unique 100%
General annotation 1,168 5,049 100%
Function 562 567 48.1%
Catalytic activity 3 3 0.3%
Subcellular location 0 0 N/A
Toxic dose 5 5 0.4%
Sequence annotation 1,153 7,556 98.7%
Amino acid modifications 1,054 3,895 90.2%
Cross-references 1,153 6,135 100%
EMBL 731 972 62.6%
InterPro 762 1,004 65.2%
PDB 77 164 6.6%
Conoserver 863 946 73.9%

100% of reviewed snail venom proteins entries are annotated with at least one keyword .

98.2% of reviewed snail venom proteins entries are annotated with at least one GO (Gene Ontology ) term.

Scorpion venom proteins - 951 reviewed entries.

Evidence for the existence of protein Percentage of entries
at protein level 59.2%
at transcript level 27.5%
inferred from homology 13.2%
predicted N/A
uncertain N/A

Annotation categories Entries with Number of annotations Coverage
PubMed citations 951 660 unique 100%
General annotation 951 3,682 100%
Function 840 876 88.3%
Catalytic activity 15 15 1.6%
Subcellular location 0 0 N/A
Toxic dose 87 92 9.1%
Sequence annotation 946 5,339 99.5%
Amino acid modifications 779 2,813 81.9%
Cross-references 951 7,357 100%
EMBL 509 656 53.5%
InterPro 713 1,602 75%
PDB 93 163 9.8%

100% of reviewed scorpion venom proteins entries are annotated with at least one keyword .

99.9% of reviewed scorpion venom proteins entries are annotated with at least one GO (Gene Ontology ) term.

Spider venom proteins - 1,454 reviewed entries.

Evidence for the existence of protein Percentage of entries
at protein level 43.9%
at transcript level 50.9%
inferred from homology 5.2%
predicted N/A
uncertain N/A

Annotation categories Entries with Number of annotations Coverage
PubMed citations 1,454 377 unique 100%
General annotation 1,454 6,362 100%
Function 1,151 1,156 79.2%
Catalytic activity 217 217 14.9%
Subcellular location 0 0 N/A
Toxic dose 102 115 7%
Sequence annotation 1,444 9,535 99.3%
Amino acid modifications 1,252 4,071 86.1%
Cross-references 1,453 9,205 100%
EMBL 1,034 1,355 71.1%
InterPro 1,082 1,447 74.4%
PDB 67 98 4.6%
ArachnoServer 1,136 1,146 78.1%

100% of reviewed spider venom proteins entries are annotated with at least one keyword .

99.9% of reviewed spider venom proteins entries are annotated with at least one GO (Gene Ontology ) term.