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Animal toxin annotation project

Statistics

UniProt release 2017_07 of Jul-05, 2017 contains 555,100 reviewed entries.

Total number of reviewed animal toxin entries: 5,813 .

Total number of reviewed venom protein entries: 6,258 .

Common name Scientific name Toxins Proteins
found in
venom
Species
producing
toxins
Species
secreting
venom
Snakes Serpentes 1,934 2,277 205 208
Spiders Araneae 1,388 1,463 99 100
Snails Gastropoda 1,173 1,181 108 106
Scorpions Scorpiones 768 959 72 77
Sea anemones Actiniaria 235 0 44 0
Insects Hexapoda 75 258 38 79
Lizards Anguimorpha 34 37 7 7
Fishes Teleostei 29 15 10 5
Scolopendra Scolopendridae 49 52 3 4
Mammals Mammalia 7 6 2 1
Hydra Hydroida 4 0 2 0
Toad Amphibia 76 3 16 2
Mites Acari 3 0 2 0
Starfishes Asteroidea 3 3 1 1
Worms Cerebratulus 3 0 1 0
Medusae Rhopilema 1 0 1 0
Jellyfishes Cubozoa 5 0 4 0
other metazoans - 26 4 12 2
All animals Metazoa 5,813 6,258 627 592

Venom protein targets in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot distributed by taxonomical group. The idea for the table originates from the nomenclature proposition made by King et al. 2008 (PMID:18619481). The table proposed in this paper has been completed and links between venom proteins and targets have been added. Since this table may also help in nomenclature discussions, the descriptors (Greek letter that specifies the biological function) proposed by these authors are also indicated (see 2nd column). Note that multiple descriptors used for sodium channels are due to different modes of action on this channel. The targets are firstly ordered by types: ion channels, receptors (7TM and 1TM) and transporters, and secondly by abundance.

target: ion channel (voltage-gated and transmitter-gated) descriptor snake scorpion spider cone snail insect sea anemone all
voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channel beta, delta, iota, mu 1 360 150 94 3 89 701
potassium channel inhibitor (Includes the following 4 channels: KIR, K2P, Kv and KCa as targets) - 51 294 102 40 6 69 589
- voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channel kappa 45 188 90 22 0 65 423
- calcium-activated potassium (KCa) channel lambda 11 48 7 0 3 0 69
- inward-rectifier potassium (KIR) channel eta 0 0 0 0 1 0 1
- two-pore domain potassium (K2P) channel theta 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha, psi 277 0 0 152 0 0 429
calcium channel inhibitor (Includes CaV and Ryr) - 55 25 119 83 7 0 305
- voltage-gated calcium (Cav) channel omega 11 3 112 77 6 0 213
- ryanodine receptor (RyR) phi 8 19 0 0 0 0 28
- P2RX receptor omicron 0 0 2 0 0 0 2
chloride channel inhibitor (Includes CLCN, CFTR and GABA(A) as targets) - 2 18 0 0 0 0 20
- voltage-gated chloride channels (CLCN) epsilon 0 18 0 0 0 0 18
- CFTR channel LAMBDA - in upper case 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
- GABA(A) receptor SIGMA - in upper case 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
glutamate receptor GAMMA - in upper case 0 0 2 19 0 0 21
HCNa nonspecific cation channel gamma 0 0 0 7 0 0 7
cyclic nucleotide-gated channel zeta 10 0 0 0 0 0 10
transient receptor potential (TRP) channel tau 0 0 4 0 0 3 16
acid-sensing ion (ASICs) channel pi 0 0 1 0 0 1 2
5-HT receptor sigma 0 0 0 1 0 0 1
target: receptor 7TM descriptor snake scorpion spider cone snail insect sea anemone all
muscarinic acetylcholine receptor - 27 0 0 0 0 0 27
adrenoceptor rho 13 12 0 1 0 0 27
bradykinin receptor - 6 2 5 0 10 0 92
dopamine receptor - 1 0 0 0 0 0 1
vasopressin/oxytocin receptor upsilon 0 0 0 4 0 0 4
endothelin receptor xi 6 0 0 0 0 0 6
vasoactive intestinal polypeptide receptor - 0 0 0 0 0 0 4
glucagon-like peptide receptor - 0 0 0 0 0 0 3
somatostatin receptor - 0 0 0 2 0 0 2
cholecystokinin receptor - 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
neurotensin receptor nu 0 0 0 3 0 0 3
target: receptor 1TM descriptor snake scorpion spider cone snail insect sea anemone all
vascular endothelial growth factor receptor - 16 0 0 0 0 0 16
epidermal growth factor receptor OMEGA - in upper case 0 0 0 0 0 4 4
target: transporter descriptor snake scorpion spider cone snail insect sea anemone all
noradrenaline transporter chi 0 0 0 8 0 0 8
glutamate transporter - 0 0 1 0 0 0 1

Snake venom proteins - 2,277 reviewed entries.

Evidence for the existence of protein Percentage of entries
at protein level 67.9%
at transcript level 24.2%
inferred from homology 7.9%
predicted N/A
uncertain N/A

Annotation categories Entries with Number of annotations Coverage
PubMed citations 2,277 1,867 unique 100%
General annotation 2,277 11,062 100%
Function 2,188 2,332 96.1%
Catalytic activity 512 514 22.5%
Subcellular location 0 0 N/A
Toxic dose 278 305 12.2%
Sequence annotation 2,272 25,230 99.8%
Amino acid modifications 2,068 11,570 90.8%
Cross-references 2,277 31,078 100%
EMBL 1,364 1,700 59.9%
InterPro 1,981 6,988 87%
PDB 246 557 10.8%

100% of reviewed snake venom proteins entries are annotated with at least one keyword .

99.9% of reviewed snake venom proteins entries are annotated with at least one GO (Gene Ontology ) term.

Snail venom proteins - 1,181 reviewed entries.

Evidence for the existence of protein Percentage of entries
at protein level 35.8%
at transcript level 53.9%
inferred from homology 10.1%
predicted N/A
uncertain 0.2%

Annotation categories Entries with Number of annotations Coverage
PubMed citations 1,181 463 unique 100%
General annotation 1,181 5,159 100%
Function 577 584 48.9%
Catalytic activity 4 4 0.3%
Subcellular location 0 0 N/A
Toxic dose 7 7 0.6%
Sequence annotation 1,166 7,711 98.7%
Amino acid modifications 1,067 3,944 90.3%
Cross-references 1,180 6,476 100%
EMBL 734 976 62.2%
InterPro 771 1,018 65.3%
PDB 78 165 6.6%
Conoserver 863 946 73.1%

100% of reviewed snail venom proteins entries are annotated with at least one keyword .

99.8% of reviewed snail venom proteins entries are annotated with at least one GO (Gene Ontology ) term.

Scorpion venom proteins - 959 reviewed entries.

Evidence for the existence of protein Percentage of entries
at protein level 59.5%
at transcript level 27.3%
inferred from homology 13.1%
predicted N/A
uncertain N/A

Annotation categories Entries with Number of annotations Coverage
PubMed citations 959 666 unique 100%
General annotation 959 3,738 100%
Function 848 884 88.4%
Catalytic activity 15 15 1.6%
Subcellular location 0 0 N/A
Toxic dose 88 93 9.2%
Sequence annotation 954 5,393 99.5%
Amino acid modifications 786 2,842 82%
Cross-references 955 7,745 100%
EMBL 509 656 53.1%
InterPro 713 1,607 74.3%
PDB 93 163 9.7%

100% of reviewed scorpion venom proteins entries are annotated with at least one keyword .

99.4% of reviewed scorpion venom proteins entries are annotated with at least one GO (Gene Ontology ) term.

Spider venom proteins - 1,463 reviewed entries.

Evidence for the existence of protein Percentage of entries
at protein level 44%
at transcript level 50.6%
inferred from homology 5.4%
predicted N/A
uncertain N/A

Annotation categories Entries with Number of annotations Coverage
PubMed citations 1,463 380 unique 100%
General annotation 1,463 6,418 100%
Function 1,160 1,165 79.3%
Catalytic activity 217 217 14.8%
Subcellular location 0 0 N/A
Toxic dose 107 123 7.3%
Sequence annotation 1,453 9,614 99.3%
Amino acid modifications 1,260 4,130 86.1%
Cross-references 1,460 9,569 100%
EMBL 1,038 1,358 71%
InterPro 1,088 1,435 74.4%
PDB 68 99 4.6%
ArachnoServer 1,138 1,147 77.8%

100% of reviewed spider venom proteins entries are annotated with at least one keyword .

99.5% of reviewed spider venom proteins entries are annotated with at least one GO (Gene Ontology ) term.